# Internal wave example

In this example, we initialize an internal wave packet in two-dimensions and watch it propagate. This example illustrates how to set up a two-dimensional model, set initial conditions, and how to use `BackgroundField`

s.

## Install dependencies

First let's make sure we have all required packages installed.

```
using Pkg
pkg"add Oceananigans, CairoMakie"
```

## The physical domain

First, we pick a resolution and domain size. We use a two-dimensional domain that's periodic in $(x, z)$ and is `Flat`

in $y$:

```
using Oceananigans
grid = RectilinearGrid(size=(128, 128), x=(-π, π), z=(-π, π), topology=(Periodic, Flat, Periodic))
```

```
128×1×128 RectilinearGrid{Float64, Periodic, Flat, Periodic} on CPU with 3×0×3 halo
├── Periodic x ∈ [-3.14159, 3.14159) regularly spaced with Δx=0.0490874
├── Flat y
└── Periodic z ∈ [-3.14159, 3.14159) regularly spaced with Δz=0.0490874
```

## Internal wave parameters

Inertia-gravity waves propagate in fluids that are both *(i)* rotating, and *(ii)* density-stratified. We use Oceananigans' Coriolis abstraction to implement a background rotation rate:

`coriolis = FPlane(f=0.2)`

`FPlane{Float64}(f=0.2)`

On an `FPlane`

, the domain is idealized as rotating at a constant rate with rotation period `2π/f`

. `coriolis`

is passed to `NonhydrostaticModel`

below. Our units are arbitrary.

We use Oceananigans' `background_fields`

abstraction to define a background buoyancy field `B(z) = N^2 * z`

, where `z`

is the vertical coordinate and `N`

is the "buoyancy frequency". This means that the modeled buoyancy field perturbs the basic state `B(z)`

.

```
# Background fields are functions of `x, y, z, t`, and optional parameters.
# Here we have one parameter, the buoyancy frequency
N = 1 ## buoyancy frequency
B_func(x, y, z, t, N) = N^2 * z
B = BackgroundField(B_func, parameters=N)
```

```
BackgroundField{typeof(Main.B_func), Int64}
├── func: B_func (generic function with 1 method)
└── parameters: 1
```

We are now ready to instantiate our model. We pass `grid`

, `coriolis`

, and `B`

to the `NonhydrostaticModel`

constructor. We add a small amount of `IsotropicDiffusivity`

to keep the model stable during time-stepping, and specify that we're using a single tracer called `b`

that we identify as buoyancy by setting `buoyancy=BuoyancyTracer()`

.

```
model = NonhydrostaticModel(; grid, coriolis,
advection = CenteredFourthOrder(),
timestepper = :RungeKutta3,
closure = ScalarDiffusivity(ν=1e-6, κ=1e-6),
tracers = :b,
buoyancy = BuoyancyTracer(),
background_fields = (; b=B)) # `background_fields` is a `NamedTuple`
```

```
NonhydrostaticModel{CPU, RectilinearGrid}(time = 0 seconds, iteration = 0)
├── grid: 128×1×128 RectilinearGrid{Float64, Periodic, Flat, Periodic} on CPU with 3×0×3 halo
├── timestepper: RungeKutta3TimeStepper
├── tracers: b
├── closure: ScalarDiffusivity{ExplicitTimeDiscretization}(ν=1.0e-6, κ=(b=1.0e-6,))
├── buoyancy: BuoyancyTracer with -ĝ = ZDirection
└── coriolis: FPlane{Float64}(f=0.2)
```

## A Gaussian wavepacket

Next, we set up an initial condition that excites an internal wave that propates through our rotating, stratified fluid. This internal wave has the pressure field

\[p(x, y, z, t) = a(x, z) \, \cos(kx + mz - ω t) \, .\]

where $m$ is the vertical wavenumber, $k$ is the horizontal wavenumber, $ω$ is the wave frequncy, and $a(x, z)$ is a Gaussian envelope. The internal wave dispersion relation links the wave numbers $k$ and $m$, the Coriolis parameter $f$, and the buoyancy frequency $N$:

```
# Non-dimensional internal wave parameters
m = 16 # vertical wavenumber
k = 8 # horizontal wavenumber
f = coriolis.f
# Dispersion relation for inertia-gravity waves
ω² = (N^2 * k^2 + f^2 * m^2) / (k^2 + m^2)
ω = sqrt(ω²)
```

We define a Gaussian envelope for the wave packet so that we can observe wave propagation.

```
# Some Gaussian parameters
A = 1e-9
δ = grid.Lx / 15
# A Gaussian envelope centered at ``(x, z) = (0, 0)``.
a(x, z) = A * exp( -( x^2 + z^2 ) / 2δ^2 )
```

An inertia-gravity wave is a linear solution to the Boussinesq equations. In order that our initial condition excites an inertia-gravity wave, we initialize the velocity and buoyancy perturbation fields to be consistent with the pressure field $p = a \, \cos(kx + mx - ωt)$ at $t=0$. These relations are sometimes called the "polarization relations". At $t=0$, the polarization relations yield

```
u₀(x, y, z) = a(x, z) * k * ω / (ω^2 - f^2) * cos(k*x + m*z)
v₀(x, y, z) = a(x, z) * k * f / (ω^2 - f^2) * sin(k*x + m*z)
w₀(x, y, z) = a(x, z) * m * ω / (ω^2 - N^2) * cos(k*x + m*z)
b₀(x, y, z) = a(x, z) * m * N^2 / (ω^2 - N^2) * sin(k*x + m*z)
set!(model, u=u₀, v=v₀, w=w₀, b=b₀)
```

Recall that the buoyancy `b`

is a perturbation, so that the total buoyancy field is $N^2 z + b$.

## A wave packet on the loose

We're ready to release the packet. We build a simulation with a constant time-step,

`simulation = Simulation(model, Δt = 0.1 * 2π/ω, stop_iteration = 20)`

```
Simulation of NonhydrostaticModel{CPU, RectilinearGrid}(time = 0 seconds, iteration = 0)
├── Next time step: 1.304 seconds
├── Elapsed wall time: 0 seconds
├── Wall time per iteration: NaN years
├── Stop time: Inf years
├── Stop iteration : 20.0
├── Wall time limit: Inf
├── Callbacks: OrderedDict with 4 entries:
│ ├── stop_time_exceeded => Callback of stop_time_exceeded on IterationInterval(1)
│ ├── stop_iteration_exceeded => Callback of stop_iteration_exceeded on IterationInterval(1)
│ ├── wall_time_limit_exceeded => Callback of wall_time_limit_exceeded on IterationInterval(1)
│ └── nan_checker => Callback of NaNChecker for u on IterationInterval(100)
├── Output writers: OrderedDict with no entries
└── Diagnostics: OrderedDict with no entries
```

and add an output writer that saves the vertical velocity field every two iterations:

```
filename = "internal_wave.jld2"
simulation.output_writers[:velocities] = JLD2OutputWriter(model, model.velocities; filename,
schedule = IterationInterval(1),
overwrite_existing = true)
```

```
JLD2OutputWriter scheduled on IterationInterval(1):
├── filepath: ./internal_wave.jld2
├── 3 outputs: (u, v, w)
├── array type: Array{Float32}
├── including: [:grid, :coriolis, :buoyancy, :closure]
└── max filesize: Inf YiB
```

With initial conditions set and an output writer at the ready, we run the simulation

`run!(simulation)`

```
[ Info: Initializing simulation...
[ Info: ... simulation initialization complete (1.465 seconds)
[ Info: Executing initial time step...
[ Info: ... initial time step complete (1.064 minutes).
[ Info: Simulation is stopping. Model iteration 20 has hit or exceeded simulation stop iteration 20.
```

## Animating a propagating packet

To animate a the propagating wavepacket we just simulated, we load CairoMakie and make a Figure and an Axis for the animation,

```
using CairoMakie
set_theme!(Theme(fontsize = 24))
fig = Figure(resolution = (600, 600))
ax = Axis(fig[2, 1]; xlabel = "x", ylabel = "z",
limits = ((-π, π), (-π, π)), aspect = AxisAspect(1))
```

Next, we load `w`

data with `FieldTimeSeries`

of `w`

and make contour plots of vertical velocity. We use Makie's `Observable`

to animate the data. To dive into how `Observable`

s work, refer to Makie.jl's Documentation.

```
n = Observable(1)
w_timeseries = FieldTimeSeries(filename, "w")
x, y, z = nodes(w_timeseries)
w = @lift interior(w_timeseries[$n], :, 1, :)
w_lim = 1e-8
contourf!(ax, x, z, w;
levels = range(-w_lim, stop=w_lim, length=10),
colormap = :balance,
colorrange = (-w_lim, w_lim),
extendlow = :auto,
extendhigh = :auto)
title = @lift "ωt = " * string(round(w_timeseries.times[$n] * ω, digits=2))
fig[1, 1] = Label(fig, title, textsize=24, tellwidth=false)
```

`Label()`

And, finally, we record a movie.

```
using Printf
frames = 1:length(w_timeseries.times)
@info "Animating a propagating internal wave..."
record(fig, filename * ".mp4", frames, framerate=8) do i
msg = string("Plotting frame ", i, " of ", frames[end])
print(msg * " \r")
n[] = i
end
```

```
[ Info: Animating a propagating internal wave...
Plotting frame 1 of 21
Plotting frame 2 of 21
Plotting frame 3 of 21
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```

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