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0-moment microphysics

CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_0MModule
Zero-moment bulk microphysics scheme that instantly removes
moisture above certain threshold.
This is equivalent to instanteneous conversion of cloud condensate
into precipitation and precipitation fallout with infinite
terminal velocity.
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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_0M.remove_precipitationFunction
remove_precipitation(param_set::APS, q; q_vap_sat)
  • param_set - abstract parameter set
  • q - current PhasePartition
  • q_vap_sat - water vapor specific humidity at saturation

Returns the q_tot tendency due to the removal of precipitation. The tendency is obtained assuming a relaxation with a constant timescale to a state with precipitable water removed. The threshold for when to remove q_tot is defined either by the condensate specific humidity or supersaturation. The thresholds and the relaxation timescale are defined in CLIMAParameters.

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1-moment microphysics

CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1MModule
One-moment bulk microphysics scheme, which includes:
  • terminal velocity of precipitation
  • condensation and evaporation of cloud liquid water and deposition and sublimation of cloud ice (relaxation to equilibrium)
  • autoconversion of cloud liquid water into rain and of cloud ice into snow
  • accretion due to collisions between categories of condensed species
  • evaporation and sublimation of hydrometeors
  • melting of snow into rain
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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.n0_snoFunction
n0_sno(param_set, q_sno, ρ)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • q_sno - snow specific humidity
  • ρ - air density

Returns the intercept parameter of the assumed Marshall-Palmer distribution of snow particles.

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.τ_relaxFunction
τ_relax(param_set, liquid)
τ_relax(param_set, ice)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • liquid - a type for cloud liquid water
  • ice - a type for cloud ice

Returns the relaxation timescale for condensation and evaporation of cloud liquid water or the relaxation timescale for sublimation and deposition of cloud ice.

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.lambdaFunction
lambda(q, ρ, n0, m0, me, r0, χm, Δm)
  • q - specific humidity of rain, ice or snow
  • ρ - air density
  • n0 - size distribution parameter
  • m0, me, χm, Δm, r0 - mass(radius) parameters

Returns the rate parameter of the assumed size distribution of particles (rain drops, ice crystals, snow crystals).

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.unpack_paramsFunction
unpack_params(param_set, micro, ρ, q_)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • micro - type for cloud ice, rain or snow
  • q_ - specific humidity
  • ρ - air density

Utility function that unpacks microphysics parameters.

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.terminal_velocityFunction
terminal_velocity(param_set, precip, ρ, q_)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • precip - a type for rain or snow
  • ρ - air density
  • q_ - rain or snow specific humidity

Returns the mass weighted average terminal velocity assuming a Marshall-Palmer (1948) distribution of rain drops and snow crystals.

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.conv_q_vap_to_q_liq_iceFunction
conv_q_vap_to_q_liq_ice(param_set, liquid, q_sat, q)
conv_q_vap_to_q_liq_ice(param_set, ice, q_sat, q)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • liquid - a type for cloud water
  • ice - a type for cloud ice
  • q_sat - PhasePartition at equilibrium
  • q - current PhasePartition

Returns the cloud water tendency due to condensation and evaporation or cloud ice tendency due to sublimation and vapor deposition. The tendency is obtained assuming a relaxation to equilibrium with a constant timescale.

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.conv_q_liq_to_q_raiFunction
conv_q_liq_to_q_rai(param_set, q_liq)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • q_liq - liquid water specific humidity

Returns the q_rai tendency due to collisions between cloud droplets (autoconversion), parametrized following Kessler (1995).

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.conv_q_ice_to_q_sno_no_supersatFunction
conv_q_ice_to_q_sno_no_supersat(param_set, q_ice)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • q_ice - cloud ice specific humidity

Returns the q_sno tendency due to autoconversion from ice. This is a simplified version of a snow autoconversion rate that can be used in simulations where there is no supersaturation (for example in TC.jl when using saturation adjustment).

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.conv_q_ice_to_q_snoFunction
conv_q_ice_to_q_sno(param_set, q, ρ, T)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • q - phase partition
  • ρ - air density
  • T - air temperature

Returns the q_sno tendency due to autoconversion from ice. Parameterized following Harrington et al. (1996) and Kaul et al. (2015).

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.accretionFunction
accretion(param_set, cloud, precip, q_clo, q_pre, ρ)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • cloud - type for cloud water or cloud ice
  • precip - type for rain or snow
  • q_clo - cloud water or cloud ice specific humidity
  • q_pre - rain water or snow specific humidity
  • ρ - rain water or snow specific humidity

Returns the source of precipitating water (rain or snow) due to collisions with cloud water (liquid or ice).

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.accretion_rain_sinkFunction
accretion_rain_sink(param_set, q_ice, q_rai, ρ)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • q_ice - cloud ice specific humidity
  • q_rai - rain water specific humidity
  • ρ - air density

Returns the sink of rain water (partial source of snow) due to collisions with cloud ice.

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.accretion_snow_rainFunction
accretion_snow_rain(param_set, type_i, type_j, q_i, q_j, ρ)
  • i - snow for temperatures below freezing or rain for temperatures above freezing
  • j - rain for temperatures below freezing or rain for temperatures above freezing
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • type_i, type_j - a type for snow or rain
  • q_ - specific humidity of snow or rain
  • ρ - air density

Returns the accretion rate between rain and snow. Collisions between rain and snow result in snow at temperatures below freezing and in rain at temperatures above freezing.

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.evaporation_sublimationFunction
evaporation_sublimation(param_set, rain, q, q_rai, ρ, T)
evaporation_sublimation(param_set, snow, q, q_sno, ρ, T)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • rain - a type for rain
  • snow - a type for snow
  • q - phase partition
  • q_rai - rain specific humidity
  • q_sno - snow specific humidity
  • ρ - air density
  • T - air temperature

Returns the tendency due to rain evaporation or snow sublimation.

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CloudMicrophysics.Microphysics_1M.snow_meltFunction
snow_melt(param_set, q_sno, ρ, T)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth parameters
  • q_sno - snow water specific humidity
  • ρ - air density
  • T - air temperature

Returns the tendency due to snow melt.

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Aerosol model

CloudMicrophysics.AerosolModelModule
A container for information on aerosol size distribution
and chemical properties.

The size distribution is a sum of lognormal internally mixed modes.
The chemical composition can be expressed using kappa parameter
or hygroscopicity parameter B.
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CloudMicrophysics.AerosolModel.Mode_BType
Mode_B

Represents the sizes and chemical composition of aerosol particles in one size distribution mode. The mode is assumed to be made up of internally mixed components and follow a lognormal size distribution. The chemical composition of aerosol particles in this mode is described using the parameters from Abdul-Razzak and Ghan 2000.

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CloudMicrophysics.AerosolModel.Mode_κType
Mode_κ

Represents the sizes and chemical composition of aerosol particles in one size distribution mode. The mode is assumed to be made up of internally mixed components and follow a lognormal size distribution. The chemical composition of aerosol particles in this mode is described using the parameters from Petters and Kreidenweis 2007.

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CloudMicrophysics.AerosolModel.AerosolDistributionType
AerosolDistribution

Represents the aerosol size distribution as a tuple with different modes. All modes have to either be of type ModeB (Abdul-Razzak and Ghan 2000) or of type Modeκ (Petters and Kreidenweis 2007).

Constructors

AerosolDistribution(Modes::T)
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Aerosol activation

CloudMicrophysics.AerosolActivationModule
Aerosol activation scheme, which includes:
  • mean hygroscopicity for each mode of the aerosol size distribution
  • critical supersaturation for each mode of the aerosol size distribution
  • maximum supersaturation
  • total number of particles actived
  • total mass of particles actived
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CloudMicrophysics.AerosolActivation.mean_hygroscopicity_parameterFunction
mean_hygroscopicity_parameter(param_set, ad)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth's parameters
  • ad - aerosol distribution struct

Returns a tuple of hygroscopicity parameters (one tuple element for each aerosol size distribution mode). The tuple is computed either as mass-weighted B parameters (Abdul-Razzak and Ghan 2000) or volume weighted kappa parameters (Petters and Kreidenweis 2007). Implemented via a dispatch based on aerosol distribution mode type.

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CloudMicrophysics.AerosolActivation.max_supersaturationFunction
max_supersaturation(param_set, ad, T, p, w, q)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth's parameters
  • ad - aerosol distribution struct
  • T - air temperature
  • p - air pressure
  • w - vertical velocity
  • q - phase partition

Returns the maximum supersaturation.

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CloudMicrophysics.AerosolActivation.N_activated_per_modeFunction
N_activated_per_mode(param_set, ad, T, p, w, q)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth's parameters
  • ad - aerosol distribution struct
  • T - air temperature
  • p - air pressure
  • w - vertical velocity
  • q - phase partition

Returns the number of activated aerosol particles in each aerosol size distribution mode.

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CloudMicrophysics.AerosolActivation.M_activated_per_modeFunction
M_activated_per_mode(param_set, ad, T, p, w, q)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth's parameters
  • ad - aerosol distribution struct
  • T - air temperature
  • p - air pressure
  • w - vertical velocity
  • q - phase partition

Returns the mass of activated aerosol particles per mode of the aerosol size distribution.

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CloudMicrophysics.AerosolActivation.total_N_activatedFunction
total_N_activated(param_set, ad, T, p, w, q)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth's parameters
  • ad - aerosol distribution struct
  • T - air temperature
  • p - air pressure
  • w - vertical velocity
  • q - phase partition

Returns the total number of activated aerosol particles.

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CloudMicrophysics.AerosolActivation.total_M_activatedFunction
total_M_activated(param_set, ad, T, p, w, q)
  • param_set - abstract set with Earth's parameters
  • ad - aerosol distribution struct
  • T - air temperature
  • p - air pressure
  • w - vertical velocity
  • q - phase partition

Returns the total mass of activated aerosol particles.

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Common utility functions

CloudMicrophysics.Common.G_funcFunction
G_func(param_set, T, Liquid())
G_func(param_set, T, Ice())
  • param_set - abstract set with earth parameters
  • T - air temperature
  • Liquid(), Ice() - liquid or ice phase to dispatch over.

Utility function combining thermal conductivity and vapor diffusivity effects.

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