Coriolis

The Coriolis option determines whether the fluid experiences the effect of the Coriolis force, or rotation. Currently three options are available: no rotation, $f$-plane, and $\beta$-plane.

Coriolis vs. rotation

If you are wondering why this option is called "Coriolis" it is because rotational effects could include the Coriolis and centripetal forces, both of which arise in non-inertial reference frames. But here the model only considers the Coriolis force.

No rotation

By default there is no rotation. This can be made explicit by passing coriolis = nothing to a model constructor.

Traditional $f$-plane

To set up an $f$-plane with, for example, Coriolis parameter $f = 10^{-4} \text{s}^{-1}$

julia> coriolis = FPlane(f=1e-4)
FPlane{Float64}: f = 1.00e-04

An $f$-plane can also be specified at some latitude on a spherical planet with a planetary rotation rate. For example, to specify an $f$-plane at a latitude of $\varphi = 45°\text{N}$ on Earth which has a rotation rate of $\Omega = 7.292115 \times 10^{-5} \text{s}^{-1}$

julia> coriolis = FPlane(rotation_rate=7.292115e-5, latitude=45)
FPlane{Float64}: f = 1.03e-04

in which case the value of $f$ is given by $2\Omega\sin\varphi$.

Coriolis term for constant rotation in a Cartesian coordinate system

One can use ConstantCartesianCoriolis to set up a Coriolis acceleration term where the Coriolis parameter is constant and the rotation axis is arbitrary. For example, with $\boldsymbol{f} = (0, f_y, f_z) = (0, 2, 1) \times 10^{-4} \text{s}^{-1}$,

julia> coriolis = ConstantCartesianCoriolis(fx=0, fy=2e-4, fz=1e-4)
ConstantCartesianCoriolis{Float64}: fx = 0.00e+00, fy = 2.00e-04, fz = 1.00e-04

Or alternatively, the same result can be achieved by specifying the magnitude of the Coriolis frequency f and the rotation_axis. So another way to get a Coriolis acceleration with the same values is:

julia> rotation_axis = (0, 2e-4, 1e-4)./√(2e-4^2 + 1e-4^2) # rotation_axis has to be a unit vector
(0.0, 0.8944271909999159, 0.4472135954999579)

julia> coriolis = ConstantCartesianCoriolis(f=√(2e-4^2+1e-4^2), rotation_axis=rotation_axis)
ConstantCartesianCoriolis{Float64}: fx = 0.00e+00, fy = 2.00e-04, fz = 1.00e-04

An $f$-plane with non-traditional Coriolis terms can also be specified at some latitude on a spherical planet with a planetary rotation rate. For example, to specify an $f$-plane at a latitude of $\varphi = 45°\text{N}$ on Earth which has a rotation rate of $\Omega = 7.292115 \times 10^{-5} \text{s}^{-1}$

julia> coriolis = ConstantCartesianCoriolis(rotation_rate=7.292115e-5, latitude=45)
ConstantCartesianCoriolis{Float64}: fx = 0.00e+00, fy = 1.03e-04, fz = 1.03e-04

in which case $f_z = 2\Omega\sin\varphi$ and $f_y = 2\Omega\cos\varphi$.

Traditional $\beta$-plane

To set up a $\beta$-plane the background rotation rate $f_0$ and the $\beta$ parameter must be specified. For example, a $\beta$-plane with $f_0 = 10^{-4} \text{s}^{-1}$ and $\beta = 1.5 \times 10^{-11} \text{s}^{-1}\text{m}^{-1}$ can be set up with

julia> coriolis = BetaPlane(f₀=1e-4, β=1.5e-11)
BetaPlane{Float64}: f₀ = 1.00e-04, β = 1.50e-11

Alternatively, a $\beta$-plane can also be set up at some latitude on a spherical planet with a planetary rotation rate and planetary radius. For example, to specify a $\beta$-plane at a latitude of $\varphi = 10^\circ{S}$ on Earth which has a rotation rate of $\Omega = 7.292115 \times 10^{-5} \text{s}^{-1}$ and a radius of $R = 6,371 \text{km}$

julia> coriolis = BetaPlane(rotation_rate=7.292115e-5, latitude=-10, radius=6371e3)
BetaPlane{Float64}: f₀ = -2.53e-05, β = 2.25e-11

in which case $f_0 = 2\Omega\sin\varphi$ and $\beta = 2\Omega\cos\varphi / R$.

Non-traditional $\beta$-plane

A non-traditional $\beta$-plane requires either 5 parameters (by default Earth's radius and rotation rate are used):

julia> NonTraditionalBetaPlane(fz=1e-4, fy=2e-4, β=4e-11, γ=-8e-11)
NonTraditionalBetaPlane{Float64}: fz = 1.00e-04, fy = 2.00e-04, β = 4.00e-11, γ = -8.00e-11, R = 6.37e+06

or the rotation rate, radius, and latitude:

julia> NonTraditionalBetaPlane(rotation_rate=5.31e-5, radius=252.1e3, latitude=10)
NonTraditionalBetaPlane{Float64}: fz = 1.84e-05, fy = 1.05e-04, β = 4.15e-10, γ = -1.46e-10, R = 2.52e+05